HISTORY OF EGYPTIAN ARCHITECTURE
: Valley of the Kings; Thebes, Egypt.
Valley of the Kings, the west bank of the Nile.
- On the east bank of the Nile lay the city with its palace, administrative buildings, and residential quarters. On the west bank the dead had been buried since time immemorial at the foot of impressive cliffs.
For reasons of security the royal tombs were tunneled into the rock in the lonely Valley of the Kings, physically separated from the temples for the worship of the dead. It begun since 18th Dynasty and continued to 19th and 20th Dynasty.
The royal mortuary temples were ranged at the foot of the cliffs that run in a line north and south, facing the fertile land and the sanctuaries on the east bank.
There were more than fifty tombs in the valley and about twenty dead boddies had been buried in the heart of the mountain.
Inside of the sarcophagus room where the mummy was settled were decorated by beautiful paintings and texts with colors on the plaster walls and ceiling. The paintings are the story of voyage to the death, next world and the astronomical chart.
The texts was called the Book of the Dead, The Book of Gates, the Bok of Caves and so on. The pharaoh went to voyage to the next world with those books.
- The southwest of the Valley of the Kings were the Valley of the Queens with more than 80 tombs of queens, prince and princes.
Also the artisans who engaged in construction of royal tombs were buried the Valley of the Artisans where called Deir el-Medina today.
Photo: Shoji Hiramatsu
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