Articles concerned with flapping


Japanese page is here . English version is less information than Japanese version.
Some articles are hard to get. So I don't have all articles. Please tell me if you have more info.

Articles about Human Powered Aircraft are in Nihon University Aero Student Group.


Human Powered Ornithopter


K. Kawai, (M. Harada)., Man as a Locomotive Engine., Proc. 1994 International Human-Powered Flight Symposium, pp.6-1 - 6-4, 1994
Measured result of characteristic of the power of rowing action and discussion about application of rowing motion to human powered ornithopter.

(M. Harada), K. Kawai., Estimation of the Required Power in a Man Powered Ornithopter., Proc. 1994 International Human-Powered Flight Symposium, pp.7-1 - 7-4, 1994
Estimation of power to flapping flight with momentum theory, and the effect of the span ratio of flapping wing and fixed wing on the required power and flapping frequency. Expanded theory is here. (under construction)

Two articles above are actually written by Masashi Harada and me. But, some difficulties prevented us from copyright by Harada.

Beranek, L., Der Schwingenflug, eine Technische Realitat., Deutsche Flugtechnik, Bd. 1, 1959
This article is not in Japanese libraries. Please give me information about it.

*Lippisch, A.M., Man Powered Flight in 1929., Journal of the Royal Aeronautical Society, vol.64, July 1960, pp.395-398
Technical report of their human powered ornithopter. The flight distances with catapult were about 250 - 300 m.
photo in Nihon University Aero Student Group.

*Man-powered Aircraft A-Coming., Science and Mechanics, April 1960, pp.106-108
Hartmann's flight with catapult.

*Wilkie D.R., The Work Output of Animals: flight by birds and by manpower., Nature, vol.183, 1959, pp.1515-1516
Discussion of feasibility of human powered flight with the relation of mass and power of animals.

*Akira AZUMA, Mokei Koukuuki to Tako no Kagaku (Science in Model Airplane and Kite), Denpa Jikkensya,1992, ISBN4-924518-32-8, pp.154-156
Estimation of required flapping frequency for human powered flapping flight with the relation of mass and flapping frequency of animals. etc.

Aerodynamics on Flapping

This list is limited to one concerned with airplane.

Albano, E., Rodden, W.P., A Doublet-Lattice Method for Calculating Lift Distributions on Oscillating Surfaces in Subsonic Flows., AIAA Journal, vol. 7, 1969, p.2192

*Bennet, A.G., Jr., A Preliminary Study of Ornithopter Aerodynamics University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA Order No. 70-20922, 1970

Betteridge, D.S. and Archer, R.D., A Study of the Mechanics of Flapping Wings, Aeronaut Q., 1974, pp.129-142

Blackwell, J. and Archer, R.D., Performance Characteristics of Simple Flapping Motion with Application to the Cruising Flight of Birds., University of New Wouth Wales Report, 1985/FMT/1, ISSN 0156 3068

Brooks, A.N., MacCready P.B., Lissaman, P.B.S. and Morgan, W.R., Development of a Wing-Flapping Flying Replica of the Largest Pterosaur, AIAA Paper 85-1446, 1985

*Dahlin, K., A Quest for Flapping Wings., University of Toronto Magazine, Summer1989, pp.12-13

*DeLaurier, J.D. and Harris, J. M., Experimental Study of Oscillating-Wing Propulsion., AIAA Paper 82-4107, May 1982
illustration of DeLaurie's ornithopter

DeLaurier, J.D., Drag of Wings with Cambered Aerofoils and Partial Leading-Edge Suction., J Aircr., vol.20, October 1983, pp.145-164

DeLaurier, J.D., An Experimental Study of Low-Speed Single-Surface Airfoils with Faired Leading Edges: In Low Reynolds Number Aerodynamics., Proceedings of the Conference, Norte Dame, Indiana, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989, pp.161-173

*DeLaurier J.D., An Experimental Study of Low-Speed Single-Surface Airfoils with Faired Leading Edges., Lecuture Notes in Engineering 54, Ed. Brebbia and Orszag, Springer-Verlag, 1989

*DeLaurier J. and Winfield, J., Simple Marching-Vortex Model for Two-Dimensional Unsteady Aerodynamics., Journal of Aircraft, vol.27. 1990 pp.376-378

*DeLaurier, J.D., An Aerodynamic Model for Flapping-Wing Flight Aeronautical Journal, 1993, pp.125-130

DeLaurier, J.D., The Development of an Efficient Ornithopter Wing., Aeronaut J., 1993, vol.97 pp,153-162

Dwiggins, D., Flapping Wings... Spence's Secret Life., Sport Av, August 1977, pp.19-22

Fairgrieve, J.D. and Delauried, J.D., Propulsive Performance of Two-Dimensional Thin Airfoils Undergoing Large-Amplitude Pitch and Plunge Oscillations, UTIAS Technical Note No.226, 1982
or
Univ. of Toronto, Inst. for Aerospace Studies, Toronto, Canada, TN 226, July

Garrick, I.E., Propulsion of a Flapping and Oscillating Aerofoil, NACA Report No. 567, 1936

Garrick. I,E,. Nonsteady Wing Characteristics., Aerodynamic Components of Aircraft at High Speeds, edited by A.F. Donovan and H.R. Lawrence, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 1957, Sectopm F. pp.694-706

Gibbs-Smith, C.H., The Eighteen Seventies and Eighties, A History of Flying, B.T. Batsford, London, 1953, pp.172

Herzog, K., Demonstration des Tierfluges an Hand von Vogelmodellen und Schwingenflugapparten, Anatomie und Flugbiologie der Vogel, Vustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart, 1968, pp.136-169

Holst, E. von and Kuchemann, E., Biological and Aerodynamical Problems of Animal Flight, Royal Aero. Soc. J., vol. 46

Jones, R.T., The Unsteady Lift of a Wing of finite Aspect Ratio., NACA Report No.681. 1940

Jones, R.T., Wing Flapping with Minimum Energy, NASA TM 81174, 1980

Kuchemann, E. and Holst, E. von, Aerodynamics of Animal Flight, Luftwissen, vol.8, 1941, pp.277-282,
Translated by L.J. Baker for the Ministry of Aircraft Production, R.T.P. Translation No. 1672

Kuethe, A.M. and Chow, C-Y., The Finite Wing., Foundations of Aerodynamics, 4th ed, John Wiley, New York, 1986, pp.145-164

Liberatore, Special Types of Rotary Wing Aircraft, vol. II,

Rotary Wing Aircraft Handbooks and History, 54 WCLST-148, OTS, U.S. Department of Commerce.

Lighthill, Sir J., Some Challenging New Applications for Basic Mathematical Methods in the Mechanics of Fluids That Were Originally Pursued with Aeronautical Aims., Aeronaut J., 1990, vol.91 pp.41-52

Lilienthal, O., Bird Flight as the Basis of Aviation., Longmans, Green, and Co., 1911

Norberg, U.M., Evolution of Vertebrate Flight; An Aerodynamic Model for the Transition from Gliding to Active Flight, Am. Naturalist, vol.126,1985, pp,303-327

Philps, P.J., East, R.A. and POratt, N.H., An Unsteady Liftin-Line Theory of Flapping Wings with Application to the Forward Flight of Birds., Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 1981, vol.112. pp.97-125

Rayner, J.M., A Vortex Theory of Animal Flight. Part 2. The Forward Flight of Birds., Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 1979, vol.91, pp.731-763

Rayner J., Vertebrate Flapping Flight Mechanics and Aerodynamics, and the Evolution of Flight in Bats., Biona-Report 5, Vustav Fischer, Stuttgart, 1986, pp.27-74

Reissner, E., Effect of Finite Span on the Airload Distributions for Oscillating Wings with Finite Wing Span., NACA TN1194, 1947

Reissner, E. and Stevens, J.E., Effect of Finite Span on Airload Distributions for Oscillating Wings, II-Methods of Calculation and Examples of Application, NACA TN1195, 1947

Scherer, J.O., Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Large Amplitude Oscillating Foil Propulsion Systems, Hydronautics, Laurel, Md, December 1968

Schoenky, P., Ornithopters, 1951-52 model Aeronautic Year Book, Zaic, F. (ed) Model Aeronautic Publications, New York, 1952, pp.188-190

Schmeidler, W., Dynamik des Schwingenfluges, Luftfahrtforschung, 1935, pp.128-133

Schmeidler, W., Flugzeuge mit Flugelantrieb, Luftfahrtforschung, 1936, pp.111-117

*Sugimoto, T., Optimum Design of Wings for Flapping., Trans. Japan Soc. Aero. Space Sci. vol.35, 1992, pp.250-253

Vasilev, G.S., Principles of Flight of Models with Flapping Wings., Gosudarstvaennoye Izdatel'stovo Oboronnoy Promoyshlennosti, Moscow, 1953, Translation Ad107173

Wagner, H., Dynamischer Auftrieb von Tragflugeln. Zeitschr. F. Angew. Math. U. Mech., Bd. 5., 1925

Walker, G.T., The Flapping Flight of Birds, Royal Aero. Soc. J., vol. 29, 1927, pp590-594, vol. 31 pp.337-342

Watkins, C.E., Woolston, D. S. and Cunningham, H.J., A Systematic Kernel Function Procedure for Determining Aerodynamic Forces on Oscillating or Steady Finite Wings at Subsonic Speeds., NASA TR R-48, 1959

Wells, W.R. and Queijo. M.J., Simplified Unsteady Aerodynamic Concepts, with Applications to Parameter Estimation, AIAA Paper 77-1124, Aug. 1977


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