back.gif第3章 ラテン語による「蟻と蝉」



Tettix, Cicada, そして……?

 これに対する明確な回答を、われわれはいまだ手にしていない。今、確実に言えることは、12世紀の終わり、Marie de Franceが古フランス語アングロ=ノルマン方言(アングロ=ノルマン語)に翻訳した"Ysopet"(あるいは"ISOPET"とも表記される)が存在するということのみである。


 以下、Fables / Marie de France ; Edited and translated by Harriet Spiegel (Medieval Academy Reprints for Teaching ; 32, University of Toronto Press, 1994 による。


39 Del hulchet e de la furmie

D'un hulchet cunte la maniere,
Que desque a une furmi*ere
Et tens d'yvern esteit alez.
Par aventure est einz entrez;
Viande demanda e quist,
Kar n'en aveit nent, ceo dist,
En sa meisun n'en sun recet.
Dist la furmie, 'Quei as tu dunc fet,
Quant viande deu*ssez guainer
En aust*3 e tei purchacer?'
'Jeo chant,' fet il, 'e si deduis
A autres bestes, mes ne truis
Ki le me veule reguerduner:
Pur ceo m'estut ici arester.'
Dist la furmie, 'Chante ore a mei.
Par cele fei que jeo te dei
Meuz fust que tu te purchassasses
El meis d'au*st e si guainasses,
Que fussez si de freit murant
E a nului us viande querant!
Pur quei te durreie a manger,
Quant tu a mei ne puz aider?'
Pur ceo defent que nul ne vive,
En nunchaler n'en udive;
Sulum ceo que chescun deit feire
Se deit pener de bien atreire.
Plus est cheri s'il ad quei prendre,
Que si a autrui se deit entendre.

* それぞれ*直前の文字にいわゆるウムラウト(¨)が附いている。


39 The Cricket and the Ant

A cricket, in a former time,
Onto an anthill once did climb,
And this took place at winter tide.
The cricket chanced to go inside,
And there he sought and asked for bread,
For he had none at all, he said,
Not in his household or his haunt.
'What were you doing,' asked the ant,
'In August, when you should procure
Your food and make yourself secure?'
'I sing,' he said, 'bring pleasure to
All creatures, but I find none who
Will now return the same to me;
I've stopped by of necessity.'
The ant replied, 'Sing to me now.
In all good faith, I say to you
It would in August have been best
To seek and store the year's harvest
And not be dying from the cold
Seeking your food at each household.
now why should I give food to thee
When you cannot give aid to me?'
Do not live lives indifferent,
Nor let yourselves be indolent.
For everyone should do his share;
TO bring in goods must be our care.
What you provide is worth far more
Than what you turn to others for.


 Spiegelの註(p. 272)の全文は、以下のとおり。

 hulchet AD (with cricket written over it in a later hand in D). The original word was apparently problematic for later scribes. The Latin Rom. Nil.[=Romulus Nilantii] is cicadia. Most of the mss give various words for cricket: cricket BELY, crisnon HRVW, grislet P, gresilon CIKMQT, crikelon, crekillon FO. Hulchet is not attested to anywhere else, although it almost certainly means cricket. Warnke's suggestion that hulchet comes from hulque, Eng. hulk, a cargo ship, referring to the shape of the cricket, seems unlikely.

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