Supporters Network for Community Development "Machizukuri"
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8) Joint housing project by the equivalent exchange system in a gray zone (Shinzaike district,Nada-ku,Kobe)

Yusuke Goto, GU plan institute


Condition of site in Shinzaike district
 Shinzaike is located in the seaside of Nada-ku, and had various problems as a mixed residential-industrial district where wooden houses were densely built. Approximately 80% of the buildings collapsed in the earthquake. This district is within the gray zone where a Jushiso project is to be effected. A large number of housing sites was too small or lack road contact. Through examination of the rebuilding by joint housing project accompanied with machizukuri planning, three joint housing projects and three projects for constructing publicly supported rental apartment houses have been started, and three joint housing projects are under planning and adjustment as of May, 1997.
 In Shinzaike, the equivalent exchange system is adopted in the projects in 3-chome A and B blocks. The project in the A block is characterized by obtaining cooperation from two remaining houses, and joined by 20 landowners.
 In this project, a condominium including 32 dwelling units (total floor area of 2420m2) is to be built in a building site of approximately 720m2. Among the 32 units, 12 units are to be purchased by a developer. The sale of these units to the developer can cover most of the construction expenses. The shortage is shared by the previous title-holders (landowners) in accordance with their shares in the rebuilt housing.
 The area of the dwelling unit (20 units in total) for each rightful person is determined in accordance with the valuation of the land he owned. A share in the dwelling units is determined on the basis of the share in the land. During the development of the project plan, the conditions of the respective persons were adjusted. For example, one selected a smaller unit without increasing his share in the expenses (namely, selected to sell a part of his own share in the land), and another selected a larger unit by additionally buying a share. Such adjustment was reflected on the design of the condominium.
 In the basic concept of the equivalent exchange system, a part of land and building constructed through the project (namely, a share in the construction expenses) is acquired in accordance with valuation of previous land owned before the project (previous land and building with regard to an owner of a remaining house).
 As a characteristic of this project, since the households of the two houses saved from complete/partial destruction joined in the project, the resultant building site could be in a good shape. In addition, a road could also be reconstructed cooperatively with a joint housing project proceeding in the adjacent block. As a result, the communal site could be more effectively utilized. Also, since the site faces a main road, the FAR can be as high as 300%. Therefore, for the private developer, earnings from the project could be expected to some extent. Thus, It could benefit all the participants.
 In the afflicted area, the developers will probably not make a profit on their investment in the project in the joint housing project. Hence, it is difficult to have private developers join in the projects.
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