Supporters Network for Community Development "Machizukuri"
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19) Sumiyoshi District

Tsutomu Shigemura,Kobe University


 Since April in 1995, Sumiyoshi Supporters' Group for Restoration has periodically surveyed the conditions of damage and restoration in Sumiyoshi District, Higashinada Ward and it has also supported the rehabilitation of this district. Through these activities, they found these problems concerning Machizukuri:

1) "Too much demolition at public expense"

 Because of demolition at public expense in addition to collapse, many single-family houses on small properties and multi-family units in densely built-up areas were gone. We can guess that if there had been a system like "JUTAKU KOGITTE SYSTEM" in America where people could choose between repair, demolition and reconstruction or relocation, many more people would have repaired their houses.

2) "Wood frame houses cannot be replaced"

 1300 buildings out of about 3600 buildings collapsed in an area of 130ha from Yamate Kansen to Route 43 and reconstruction of 407 buildings started as of December, 1995. At the site where 14 Nagaya (row-houses) were, one was rebuilt as a Nagaya (row-house) again, and one was turned into a non-wood frame joint house. At the site where 12 wooden apartment houses were, one was turned into a Nagaya and 7 into non-wood frame joint houses. So the number of wood frame houses tends to be fewer.

3)"Temporary houses and public substitute houses account for one quarter."

Present house of householed that lost house
 A questionnaire was mailed in January, 1996 in all districts in Sumiyoshi to 2468 households which are considered to have lost their houses. Answers were received from 630 households.
 The refugees who live outside of Hyogo Prefecture accounted for 27% and some answers came back from various places, some of as far away as Brazil, the west coast of America and Malaysia. As 20% of the respondents live in public temporary houses and 6.2% live in public substitute houses now, it is very dangerous to consider temporary houses as typical houses for refugees. The people who live at their relatives' houses, friends' houses and houses which were supplied by people concerned account for 17.5%.

4)"The problem of house and land rights and qualifications for loans"

 60% of refugees answered that they wanted to go back to their previous residential areas. 75% of the refugees who lived in Sumiyoshi District said that they want to return to Sumiyoshi District and more than 85% of the refugees who lived in Higashinada Ward and as many as 90% of the refugees who lived in Kobe City said that they wanted to return to their previous residence.
 Then why can't they go back to their previous residence? Their comments in the questionnaire show that land and house rights and qualifications to get loans are serious obstacles. The emergent means for those obstacles for reconstruction will be necessary as well as those for "existing non-conforming land".
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