Supporters Network for Community Development "Machizukuri"
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28)Land readjustment of Tsukiji --- combined enforcement with residential area development

Kenji Yamaguchi, Town and Landscape Planning Institute

K-16, K-42, K-50

1) Before the degsignation

Exhibition of townscape photographs of Tukuji
Explanation conference of improvement housing block in Tukiji
 In Tsukiji district, located on the south of the outer moat of former Amagasaki castle, many houses suffered from Liquefaction phenomenon caused by this Earthquake Disaster. But machizukuri in this district did not start after this Disaster. This district, located in the center of Hanshin industrial area, has gone through environmental deterioration as a result of industrial activities after the War, ground subsidence by ground water extraction, separation from the rest of the city by the national highway route 43 (opened 1963), and roadside nuisance. As a result, 1973, a district improvement project was designated to redevelop Tsukiji district entirely into housing for the residents of Nakazaike. Then Nakazaike district would be devoted to industry. However, the project was withdrawn after objection from people of both districts. After that, machizukuri with residents' participation was attempted to restore the living environment and the roadside environment. In 1978 a plan was proposed Model project of improvement of living environment in southern Amagasaki city" thinking highly of mild improvement of living environment and aiming at case study new development of improvement project of living environment. This project also failed to get support of residents and was not carried out.
 Since liquefaction cannot be dealt with by individuals, after the earthquake, the local residents agreed to an improvement project proposed by the city to address this issue. As a result, on August 8, 1995, the city designated the district as a land readjustment project. And it was designated as a residential land improvement project on September 14, 1995. On October 18, reconstruction committee of Tsukiji district submitted "Plan of machizukuri of Tsukiji district" to the mayor of Amagasaki. After that, the land readjustment plan was finalized on December 27 and second stage urban planning was also decided on December 28, 1995. In this way, machizukuri for reconstruction of Tsukiji has passed the first stage.

2) Problem of full-scale improvement

Machizukuri plan / August, 1995
 The first problem is concerned with improvement planning of improvement housing (public receiving housing), and occupants' condition. The initial stage was the construction of 100 housing units (houses usually means single-family houses) out of a total of 500 planned units. The siting was controversial because some thought it too close to a major highway for housing. But having no alternative, the construction on the site of former
 Amagasaki port station of National Railway neighboring the district was planned. For the second stage, a centralized layout plan in blocks along Shoge river, north side of which is advantageous on shade condition, was presented. However, in order to achieve a better design and to better balance population and future development of the city, a decentralized plan for both the north and south shores was reached. The plan was discussed many times at reconstruction committee and block meeting, and finally 1/300 model was displayed at welfare hall of Tsukiji district. Along Honmachi-dori street (former Chugoku way), main street of the new district, low-storied buildings with stores on the first floor would line up. While plans for the new housing were developed, concrete requests and opinions how the housing would serve the needs of the occupants came out. For example; the space allotted to each size household seemed inadequate. Although enough space at ordinary times, it would not accommodate visitors, such as a son's family. Keeping pets would be allowed. Many subtle issues of human need were presented. A subcommittee of tenants collected these opinions, and served as a link to the city to expand understanding and cooperation.
 The next problem came when advance purchase of commercial land began. As the occupation of improvement housing by households of small and petty rightful persons whose amount of purchase compensation is not large enough would be admitted, the request to know the compensation amount of land and buildings especially from small scale land owners grows. Confrontation of intention between landlord and tenant becomes vivid, too. It is because a tenant cannot occupy improvement housing until the landlord accepts advance purchase of the land. Landlords are various in its scale of business. An old lady who earns her living by managing small rental housing claims that she cannot sell the housing even though she understands the feeling of tenants. Landlords of large land also have potential worry. Prospect for the future seems vague; would reconstruction and management of rental housing in Tsukiji successful? The city where 650 households live in private rental housing would have 505 houses of public housing. The market of rental housing would be tight.
 Construction of improvement housing of special purpose-occupation (limited district)-type temporarily prevents drain of population and contributes to the stability of the city. But is it also true from the view of machizukuri in long term? Start and challenge to secure a certain openness and liquidity for active city is necessary.
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