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3. Machizukuri in White Zone

〈article 46)〉

Definition of the White Zone

Earthquake disaster restoration promoted area / Critical restoration area / City planning project for restoration area (Kobe City)
 White Zone is the area outside of the city planning project areas for land readjustment/redevelopment (Black Zone) or critical restoration area (Gray zone). White zones make up 80% of the damaged urban area.

Problems in White Zones

 Machizukuri as a way of promoting restoration using land readjustment was used after the war and after the Sakata Great Fire (1976,in yamagata prefecture).The current "Black Zones", where land readjustment / redevelopment projects are now designated, are areas that were not damaged in the war and have not undergone land readjustment or redevelopment. As a result the land patterns and some of the buildings are very old, and have problems of very narrow roads and densely built-up, dilapidated wooden houses. The earthquake damage, especially building collapse and fire was most severe in these areas. In contrast, in the White Zones generally the urban infrastructure, such as roads and parks, were constructed since the war, during the war damage restoration. However many areas in the White Zone suffered from the Earthquake as severely as the Black Zones. Administrative support after the Earthquake was poor in these areas. Support for restoration in the white area is also needed.

Differences among Support

 1) Programs conducted in Black Zones but not in White Zones include:
(1)Community oriented machizukuri for restoration:
 Machizukuri organizations are formed in all Black Zones according to the city government. Consultants are dispatched. In White Zones, it is extremely difficult to discuss about machizukuri for restoration.
(2)Remedies to give preference, which is particular to the designated project areas:
 In Black Zones, land readjustment or redevelopment results in some sacrifices by property owners. But at the same time, roads and parks are provided and paid for by the government, and the living environment is improved. On the other hand, in White Zones, the environment has worsened as a result of illegal construction during the confusion that followed the disaster. In Black Zones, selling lands till 50,000,000 yen, and exchange of lands is untaxed, and other advantages are provided.
 2) In Gray Zone where self-stimulative projects such as development project in densely built up area and comprehensive improvement project of urban residential area are designated and the machizukuri organizations had been formed before the Earthquake, the remedies to give preference as mentioned above, particular to Black Zone, are not provided. The actual situation is extremely similar to that of the White Zone.

Support for rebuilding in White Zones.

 The major restoration strategies in white zones are joint or collaborative housing projects in densely built-up areas, and comprehensive improvement projects in urban residential areas. The subsidy rate for those who undertake these projects been increased from 2/3 to 4/5. For damaged condominiums, comprehensive design system for earthquake disaster is applied, and many "existing non-conforming" condominiums have been reconstructed by the application of this system.

Districts where machizukuri for restoration is promoted, and the activities for machizukuri

 The actual conditions facing each district vary. However in most White Zones:

Consultant network activities:

 For the machizukuri consultants, the promotion of machizukuri in White Zones is one of the big challenges. Machizukuri symposia and other activities have been held by consultant network to provide information to the residents and help them represent their ideas to the city government.
    (cf. II. 3 "Brack zone, Gray zone, White zone")
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